Formal Logic is a systematic approach to reasoning and decision-making based on formal rules, principles, and mathematical constructs. It is often associated with deductive reasoning, where conclusions are drawn from a set of premises using defined logical operations.
Formal Logic is characterized by its precision and strict adherence to defined rules of inference, making it valuable in situations where certainty and correctness are crucial. It finds applications in mathematics, computer science, and engineering, used for tasks like algorithm design, software and hardware verification, and mathematical proof consistency. AI systems, especially in areas like automated theorem proving and symbolic reasoning, incorporate elements of formal logic for logical problem-solving. However, it has limitations as it may not fully account for the complexity of human decision-making, emotions, and real-world uncertainties, which often involve factors beyond strict logical rules.